The U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit will hear oral arguments in a lawsuit filed by a former Chase customer service agent against the bank.
The court could rule on the case in the coming weeks.
It could also take up the case on Wednesday, or even on March 17.
The lawsuit, filed by the customer service worker, is one of a handful that the government is pursuing against Chase, seeking to stop it from continuing to allow Chase customers to use cards at retail stores.
The government argues the bank’s policy violates the Bank Secrecy Act, the law that prohibits banks from facilitating money laundering.
It argues that the company has been too lenient with its customers, allowing them to spend up to $100 on a single card, while limiting the amount they can use with a credit card.
Chase, the government said, has a policy that allows its customers to spend as much as they like on cards.
Cases like the one filed against Chase have been rare.
The court is hearing just two in the past decade, and the cases have often gone to lower courts.
The ruling on Wednesday is the first in which the court will consider whether the company’s policy is lawful.
It is also likely to be a test case in other cases brought by Chase and others, such as ATMs and mobile phone carriers.